#lnstudy16 keynote: a brief summary and references

Today I had the great privilege of presenting the keynote address at The University of Lincoln’s Ed.D student conference. As a PhD student myself it provided me with an opportunity to develop my own skills and also to share some of my experiences with students who are just beginning the PhD journey. I wanted to use my blog to share a summary of my presentation and also to provide references for the reports and projects I mention throughout.



Three areas make up the background to the DigiLit Leicester Project and later the foundation upon which I would build my thesis work; Digital Practice, Professionalism and Professional Development.

Digital practices are increasingly embedded into everyday life and a growing majority of us rely heavily upon our personal technologies for communication, organisation and our interactions with the world. Alongside this shift in cultural practice has been an increased recognition of the importance of digital literacy as a key skill for engagement within modern society, a recognition which is reflected in educational agendas. As early as 2006, the European Union (EU) Council proposed Digital Competence as one of eight Key Competences for Lifelong Learning.


‘Key competences for lifelong learning are a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes … They are particularly necessary for personal fulfilment and development, social inclusion, active citizenship and employment.’

 (EU Council 2006)

The Key Competences agenda catalysed many other European studies that focused on digital literacy, and their importance in enabling learners to thrive in modern society. Here in the UK, we have seen work carried out by the UK digital skills taskforce, the select committee on digital skills and most notably, changes to the ICT curriculum implemented by the Secretary of State for Education. In January 2012, Michael Gove announced that the existing ICT curriculum was to be withdrawn as it was no longer fit for purpose, with a new programme to be in place in 2014. The draft of this new programme anchored the curriculum in digital practices:

 ‘A computing education also ensures that pupils become digitally literate – able to use, and express themselves, through information and communication technology – at a level suitable for the future workplace and as active participants in a digital world’

(DfE 2013, p.3).

The content of the new curriculum is then broken up into three main aspects: Computer science, ICT and digital literacy. The inclusion of digital literacy at the interface of policy and practice suggests a growing acknowledgement of the need to formalise provision of related skills and knowledge within compulsory education. This has certainly been echoed in the report, Make or Break? The UK’s digital future, in which the Select Committee for Digital Skills  call for digital literacy to be recognised as a key skill alongside literacy and numeracy – noting that it is in itself an ‘essential tool that underpins other subjects and almost all jobs’ (2015, p.47).

So what does it mean to be digitally literate?

The first definition of digital literacy was provided by Paul Gilster and gave a very broad explanation noting that digital literacy is ‘the ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers’ (1997, p.1). You will notice that Gilster does not refer to specific technologies, but rather the ability to make best use of a range of media and resources. Given the rapid pace of technological change, it can be seen that digital literacy represents a key skill in coping with these changes and embedding new technologies into existing practices in order to improve them. Later definitions become much more specific and skills-based, a good example of this is taken from the Futurelab handbook on digital literacy across the curriculum:

‘To be digitally literate is to have access to a broad range of practices and cultural resources that you are able to apply to digital tools. It is the ability to make and share meaning in different modes and formats; to create, collaborate and communicate effectively and to understand how and when digital technologies can best be used to support these processes.’

(Hague and Payton 2010, p.2)

It can be seen here that this definition builds upon Gilster’s earlier work, by focusing it more towards the school environment. Creation, collaboration and communication are all key elements of learning, and in particular ones which can be easily measured within the classroom. The authors also note the importance of understanding when technology has the ability to enhance practice and also, therefore, when it doesn’t. This is key within an educational context as learning should be about the message not the medium through which it is conveyed.

There are many other definitions available, though these two provide an example which is both brief and encompassing of the range of interpretations. One thing that the DigiLit project identified, was that there is still a shortage of information to support school staff in understanding how best to integrate digital literacy into their teaching practice – despite the growing interest at policy level. To help remedy this issue, devised the following definition to give some clarity to how digital literacy translates into the classroom:

‘Digital Literacy refers to the skills, attitudes and knowledge required by educators to support learning in a digitally-rich world. To be digitally literate, educators must be able to utilise technology to enhance and transform classroom practices, and to enrich their own professional development and identity. The digitally literate educator will be able to think critically about why, how and when technology supplements learning and teaching.’

(Hall et al. 2014)

This recognises the importance for staff: first, in developing the skills to utilise technology purposefully within the classroom; second, in critiquing the underlying knowledge and attitudes that enhance their existing practices; and third, in being positive role models for the critical use of technology. What we wanted to do here was strike a balance between the broad and the specific, by offering areas of practice within which digital literacy is implemented without being prescriptive. This allows individual school staff to interpret this guidance in the most suitable way for the needs of their learners, subject and school.


Given the focus on staff development for both the KEP and my PhD, it has proven important to understand current perceptions of teacher professionalism. The current Conservative government have yet to publish any papers relating specifically to teacher professionalism, though a speech last year by the schools minister, Nick Gibb, made it clear that the new government will be continuing with their vision for education as laid out in the coalition government’s 2010 white paper The Importance of Teaching, which identifies the best teachers globally as top graduates, trained with a focus on classroom practice.

Whilst The Importance of Teaching (DfE 2010) did not explicitly present the government’s definition of professionalism for teachers, it did make repeated mention of certain characteristics from which we can infer the government’s principal interests. In particular, the paper identifies three key aspects of a professional: an academically able and high achieving individual; someone with a practical knowledge of teaching skills; and someone with a sound subject knowledge. Here we can see a continuation of the perspectives that drove policy change under the Conservative government of the 1980s. The current Conservative government views the key concern of teachers as a need to focus on practical classroom skills, rather than theoretical, pedagogic understanding. This is also demonstrated through their interest in recruiting the top performing graduates of specialist subject areas, which, it could be argued, makes the assumption that strong subject knowledge is enough to teach effectively, without taking educational and social theories of learning into consideration.

These three characteristics were further developed into a more explicit position statement, as the preamble section of the revised Teacher’s Standards.

‘Teachers make the education of their pupils their first concern, and are accountable for achieving the highest possible standards. Teachers act with honesty and integrity; have strong subject knowledge, keep their knowledge and skills as teachers up-to-date and are self-critical; forge positive professional relationships; and work with parents in the best interests of their pupils.’

(DfE 2011, p.1).

The statement extends the aspects identified within the 2010 white paper, adding the notion of self critique, which builds into the government’s interest in teacher accountability; that those working within education are responsible for the development of their learners as well their own continuing professional development. This is reflected in the traditional Conservative ‘hands-off’ approach, with the government handing over more responsibility to individuals and organisations in the form of self-management.

In an attempt to create a clearer baseline of expectations for teacher’s professional conduct, the new standards themselves were reduced down to eight statements, compared to the previous sixteen in the core standards alone. These standards replaced the previous QTS and Core level standards, whilst the higher level stages were discontinued as seen unfit for purpose. Reducing the standards to one-size-fits-all guidance could be seen as an attempt to give teachers the opportunity to exercise their professional judgement more in relation to their professional conduct. However, they were seen as a backwards step by many experienced teachers, by undermining their roles and ignoring the professional accomplishments of teachers at all stages of their careers (Goodwyn 2012).


Which leads us into the third topic of this discussion. According to Helsby (1999), there are three main categories of PD for teachers: initial teacher education, continuing professional development and work-based learning. The focus of both the DigiLit project and my thesis lies in the latter two categories, concerning the on-going learning and development of in-service school staff.

In just the last year we have seen  some important events unfold within CPD in the UK. Based on the findings of the OECD’s 2013 Teaching and Learning International Survey, the government announced plans to intervene in teacher professional development. The TALIS survey highlighted that UK CPD was of highly variable quality and that opportunities for teachers to engage in deeper professional learning were lacking. In response, the government announced its intention to support the creation of:

  • an independent College of teaching
  • a new fund to support high quality, evidence-based professional development
  • An online platform for knowledge sharing
  • a new non-mandatory standard for teachers’ professional development.

We are still waiting on most of these, but the New Standards for Teachers’ Professional Development were released earlier this month along with guidance documentation. You can see the standards here on the screen. The accompanying documentation identifies professional development as a relationship between Leadership, Teachers and Providers of CPD. This links with Opfer and Pedder’s (2011)  identification of 3 key systems involved in professional learning: the individual, the school and the activity. Leadership, Teachers and Providers can be seen as the agents of these three key systems and so the relationship, and more importantly the communication, between these groups is critical to ensuring that CPD supports positive, lasting change. In fact, overall I would say that the standards are very much in line with the leading research findings around effective CPD – what I was hoping for personally was that they would go beyond this, push the boundaries, and teach us something new about the government’s view of professional development but this was not the case.

The standards are clear and concise, which is very helpful to schools and individuals and I was happy to see that the guidance acknowledged that designing high quality CPD is a very complex process. However, I feel that for many staff, much more guidance is still needed, in order to adhere to these standards. For example, the first standard discusses a focus on improving and evaluating pupil outcomes. In order to ensure that CPD is having an impact on pupil outcomes, professional development programmes need to be designed with impact in mind – evaluation cannot be effective if it is considered only at the end of a programme. Therefore, effective CPD needs to consider the intended outcome for pupils within the design stage of the programme and to work out how this can best be measured. Schools need to be supported in developing their evaluation of CPD and how it is built into the design of a larger professional learning strategy for the school. The second standard makes note of robust evidence – as a PhD student, I know all too well how hard it can be to find research that is relevant to your needs – where to look? how to access? how to comb through the overwhelming mass of other information? – more needs to be done to make high quality educational research easily accessible to school staff. I have considered the standards in more detail in a previous post if you would like to read further.


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The DigiLit Leicester Project began in September 2012. It lasted for two years and focused on supporting secondary school teaching and teaching support staff in developing their digital literacy knowledge, skills and practice. The project had three key objectives:

  • To investigate and define digital literacy, in the context of secondary school based practice;
  • To identify current school staff confidence levels, and what the strengths and gaps across city schools are, in relation to this definition;
  • To support staff in developing their digital literacy skills and knowledge – raising baseline skills and confidence levels across the city, and promote existing effective and innovative practice.

The project focused on those members of staff who work with learners; senior leadership with a teaching role, teachers, classroom assistants, specialist provision and library staff. The project ran in the context of Leicester City Council’s Building Schools for the Future Programme (BSF), in which 23 of the city’s secondary schools were rebuilt or refurbished. As many of the building projects were not complete until 2014/2015, the framework was designed to support staff both in new and existing buildings. While the project as a whole was designed to ensure staff have the skills and confidence to take advantage of the new infrastructure, systems and equipment the programme will provide them with, it was also designed to support staff development within existing schools, with significantly less flexibility in the use of and access to technology to support learners.

The key element of the project was the development of a digital literacy framework:


The DigiLit Leicester framework was used to create an online survey, which was carried out in both 2013 and 2014. All staff who support learning in the 23 Leicester schools were invited to complete the survey. In 2014, a total of 701 people completed the survey; that is 39% of the 1,780 eligible members of staff.

Recommendations for areas of focus and activity in work relating to the use of technology by school staff were developed in line with the strengths and gaps indicated by the 2013 survey findings. These recommendations were used to drive and frame a range of opportunities for staff and schools. Between January 2013 and September 2014, the DigiLit team led on six events and projects, and 21 school-led projects were undertaken.

The 2014 survey results contributed a clearer understanding of the current digital literacy confidence levels of secondary school staff, provided comparisons against 2013’s survey findings, and provided new recommendations.


The comparison between the 2013 and 2014 survey data showed that a statistically significant change had occurred in the levels of confidence rated in five out of the six digital literacy strand areas. However, this change in confidence ratings had not occurred at the lowest confidence level of the framework, but rather around the middle, suggesting that staff with the lowest confidence had not made as much progress as the other staff in the project.

This sparked a number of questions for me. Why had the DigiLit Leicester project, and the professional development events associated with it, supported some staff and not others? What elements of professional development had a positive impact on staff digital literacy? What impact are current professional development strategies having on staff digital literacy? Once I had found a question that I wanted to explore further, I knew that I was ready to embark on PhD study. I began by reflecting on my personal goals for the thesis, what I felt it was important to achieve:

VALUE: I want to share, and perhaps justify, my belief that Digital Literacy is critical to supporting staff in their use of technologies for all teaching and learning purposes. That through a focus on developing confidence and a general attitude towards working effectively with technology in the classroom, we can build a foundation upon which more specific educational technology skills can be developed.

VOICE: I want to create a faithful representation of the viewpoints of the staff that work alongside me. I did not begin this thesis with an answer, only questions, and it is my belief that school staff are the best placed to provide the data from which an answer can be drawn. I do not want to underestimate their knowledge and expertise in this area.

VOCATION: I want to develop something which is of practical use – rather than theory alone. This may take the shape of a policy document, a training programme, etc. Given that school staff will be volunteering their time to participate in my research, I feel that it is important for the contribution of my thesis to include a practical element which will be of value to staff.

The original aim of my research was to investigate current professional development strategies and their impact on the development of secondary school staff digital literacy. However, through my literature review and initial data collection, issues relating to professional identity and status, and how these effect expectations of professional development, have also been explored.

4 stage model

I am taking a grounded theory approach in order to produce a reliable interpretation of teacher voice by presenting the theory that emerges from their data, rather than imposing my personal views onto the research setting and the guiding principle behind grounded theory is that theory is emergent, rather than predefined.  Grounded theory requires the researcher to be open to the possibilities of the data being collected, but it is also important to be able to identify concepts of theoretical significance so having a background in the research area, as I do, gives me an advantage, and strengthens my theoretical sensitivity. I am also working within a constructivist GT approach – which acknowledges that the theory is not generated in a vacuum separate from the data collection, but that the researcher constructs the theory through their interaction not only with the data but also with the individuals from whom the data is collected.

Within this approach, my research design is influenced by Idrees’s (2011) four-stage model of theory development, which structures grounded theory into a simplified four-stage process, suitable for PhD study, without compromising it’s guiding principles and essential elements. The model provides a scaffold, supporting the researcher in carrying out grounded theory research in a style that allows for high-level planning without affecting the flexible nature of this type of research. I felt that this approach would help me to challenge my existing research experience and knowledge, whilst maintaining an achievable study.

In the initial stage of the research, The Uncertainty Stage, a literature review is conducted in order to contextualise the study. In this case, focusing on teacher professionalism and the role of professional development, existing professional development strategies and digital literacy, each developed within the context of education. This helps with the development of a broad research question, which can then be tested through a pilot study. The primary research question will then emerge from testing of the intended methods around the research question, and engagement with research participants.

Within the next stage, The Emergence Stage, the main body of concurrent data collection and analysis begins, identifying appropriate future samples as the data are gathered. Through constant comparison of new data to that previously collected, categories begin to emerge. This stage can be seen as the key phase within the model; containing many of the essential elements of grounded theory.

Having reached the point at which a core category has emerged, and initial ideas around theory are developing, the researcher enters The Ambiguity Resolution Stage and undertakes further data collection and analysis in order to clarify any remaining areas of uncertainty. This continues until theoretical saturation is reached, which ‘occurs when in coding and analysing both no new properties emerge and the same properties continually emerge as one goes through the full extent of the data’ (Glaser 1978, p.53).

In the final stage of the research, The Maturity Stage, theoretical saturation is completed, categories are refined and the literature is revisited in order to both consolidate the theory and situate it within its wider context.

I am currently in the midst of the emergence stage, and will be spending my summer consolidating my thoughts around my main body of data collection and analysis.

phd prod

I have learnt two key things during the journey from the KEP to my PhD. Firstly, the biggest shock for me throughout the transition has been the change in structure. The DigiLit Leicester project was a lot of work, in a short space of time but I had clear goals and deadlines from the very start. With the PhD there is sometimes so much openness in the direction that I can take my work that I feel very overwhelmed and don’t know where to begin. I have by no means solved the struggle of PhD study, but I learned a few things along the way. Treat your PhD like a job, give yourself set hours of study and stick to them – in particular, give your self set hours each week in which to write and stick to those, make writing a habit so that it doesn’t become something you fear (and yes, I learned that one the hard way). Set yourself milestones and try to find a method of organisation that works for you. I found very quickly that an academic planner didn’t work for me – I couldn’t get over days of empty pages when I’d be doing the same work for a few days in a row so didn’t write anything in. It has taken considerable time but I now use a bullet journal – essentially a planner made up of to do lists to organise my time as it’s more flexible which suits my PhD working style better. So I think it’s important to find a way to give yourself structure.

Secondly, I believe that relationships have been crucial throughout both projects, in particular cultivating positive relationships in the field and maintaining them. Schools are notoriously hard to engage with as a student and at the beginning of my PhD I was concerned that without the encouragement of Council funding to support me, schools would not have the incentive to participate in my work (as I know that they certainly didn’t have the time). However, I had worked hard during the DigiLit Leictester project to support as many schools and individual staff members as I was able to and those relationships have been the key to my success in recruiting participants for my research. So I think that for fellow researchers I would emphasise the importance of positive working relationships – it really is who you know – because in the educational arena, they are the people who can help you to gain access to participants for data collection. If you don’t currently have any contacts who work in a school – look at volunteering, try connecting with educators via twitter or other professional networks. Another tip that I have picked up around recruitment is to consider what you can offer the school – so if you are going to do data collection, is the data you are gathering useful to the school – could you offer to write an anonymised summary of the data for the school? or provide recommendations to the school based on what you have collected?


Gilster, P. (1997) Digital Literacy. New York: John Wiley & Sons, inc.

Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical Sensitivity: Advances in the Methodology of Grounded Theory. Mill Valley, Ca.: Sociology Press.

Helsby, G. (1999) Multiple truths and contested realities: the changing faces of teacher professionalism in England. In: Day, C., Fernandez, A., Hague, T. and Møller, J. (eds) The Life and Work of Teachers. London: Falmer.

Opfer, V.D. and Pedder, D., (2011) Conceptualizing Teacher Professional Learning. Review of Educational Research, vol.81(3), pp.376–407.



Standards for Teachers’ Professional Development

Yesterday the much awaited new CPD standards were released by the Department for Education. The standards have come about through the work of the Teachers’ Professional Development Expert group (TPDEG) and are based on research and feedback from the education community. Since my PhD focuses on CPD in the UK, I have been waiting expectantly for the release of the standards as they will be a very interesting addition to my thesis work – and they do not disappoint.

Firstly, it is good to see the standards acknowledge that:

‘The design of high-quality professional development is as complex a discipline as the design of high-quality teaching.’

(DfE 2016, p.1)

Indeed through the reading I have carried out for my PhD, it has become increasingly clear that professional development is a complex process. There is much in the way of literature that seeks to identify what makes ‘effective CPD’, though no one perfect recipe has been found. Those programmes that have been successful often share similar characteristics, but the individual context of the school and staff involved appears to have a significant impact. This is nicely summarised by Avalos who notes that ‘not every form of professional development, even those with the greatest evidence of positive impact, is of itself relevant to all teachers’ (2011, p.10). Local schools context and individual needs play an important role.

The Standards

The strength of the standards is their simplicity and precision, they are presented as four statements:

1. Professional development should have a focus on improving and evaluating pupil outcomes.

2. Professional development should be underpinned by robust evidence and expertise.

3. Professional development should include collaboration and expert challenge.

4. Professional development programmes should be sustained over time.

Underpinned by the requirement that:

5. Professional development must be prioritised by school leadership.

The documentation identifies professional development as a relationship between Leadership, Teachers and Providers of CPD. This links with Opfer and Pedder’s (2011)  identification of the 3 key systems involved in professional learning: the individual, the school and the activity. Leadership, Teachers and Providers can be seen as the agents of these three key systems and so the relationship, and more importantly the communication, between these groups is critical to ensuring that CPD supports positive, lasting change.

Moving forward with the new standards

Whilst the standards are clear and concise, but still offer room for schools to implement within the context of their own needs, there are areas that the education community now needs to focus on to support schools in making effective use of these standards.

Professional development should have a focus on improving and evaluating pupil outcomes

In order to ensure that CPD is having an impact on pupil outcomes, professional development programmes need to be designed with impact in mind – evaluation cannot be effective if it is considered only at the end of a programme. Therefore, effective CPD needs to consider the intended outcome for pupils within the design stage of the programme and to work out how this can best be measured. Schools need to be supported in developing their evaluation of CPD and how it is built into the design of a larger professional learning strategy for the school. Bridget Clay (2016), Programme Manager at the Teacher Development Trust, suggests using Guskey’s (2000) 5 levels of professional development evaluation (see below). Advice and guidance such as this is a good first step, but what schools need now is practical guidance on how to build this kind of evaluation into their CPD.

Evaluation Level What is measured? How will the information be used?
Participant Reaction Initial satisfaction with experience To improve programme design and delivery
Participant Learning New knowledge and skills of participants To improve programme content, format and organisation.
Organisation support and challenge The organisation’s support, accommodation, facilitation etc. To document and improve organisational support

To inform future change efforts

Participants’ use of new knowledge and skills Degree and quality of implementation To document and improve the implementation of programme content.
Students’ learning outcomes Student learning outcomes (performance and attainment, attitudes, skills and behaviour) To focus and improve all aspects of programme design, implementation and follow up.

To demonstration the overall impact of professional development.

Taken from Bridget’s presentation at the TDT Conference in April

Professional development should be underpinned by robust evidence and expertise

In the last few years, research-based professional development and learning has seen a boost in recognition through teacher-led organisations such as ResearchEd and academic work such as the BERA-RSA Inquiry into Research and Teacher Education. I have spoken to a number of school staff during my time as a research associate and now as I work on my thesis, and I am often told that staff are uncertain as to where to look in the vast sea that is the internet for information that will be relevant to their specific needs – this seems particularly true for staff in SEN schools who may have very specific learner needs. Finding information and resources tailored to their pupils can be very hard, and time consuming. Furthermore, as a PhD student, I know all too well how hard it can be to find research that is relevant to your needs – where to look? how to access? how to comb through the overwhelming mass of other information? etc. Combining these two issues shows that more needs to be done to make high quality educational research easily accessible to school staff. Sites like ResearchEd and MESH Guides go part of the way towards this, but these are still relatively small pockets of work and a larger effort needs to be made.

Professional development should include collaboration and expert challenge

The research around characteristics of effective professional development and learning often highlights collaboration as one of the key elements. However, whilst teachers value opportunities to work with other educators and learn from one another, it has also been highlighted that in some instances, collaboration can encourage conformity and stifle innovation showing that, as with many of the characteristics of effective CPD, it comes with a caveat. Guskey (2003, p.11) notes that in order for collaboration to be effective, it ‘needs to be structured and purposeful, with efforts guided by clear goals for improving student learning’. This shows that supporting schools in designing professional development programmes that make effective use of collaboration within sessions is key to ensuring the success of professional learning.

Professional development programmes should be sustained over time

As with collaboration, the research shows that simply running a longer professional development programme will not guarantee effective learning, Cordingley et al. found that ‘the crucial factor differentiating more from less successful programmes is what the time was used for’ (2015, p.4). This again calls for more support around the design of CPD programmes. Studies show that CPD lasting approximately 16 weeks (two UK school terms or one US semester) is often more effective, provided that it includes adequate contact time (at least 20 hours) and opportunities for follow-up (Desimone 2009). A common theme within the focus groups and interviews I have been conducting with school staff around their experiences of CPD has been the desire for more drip-feeding and follow up. Staff have expressed a need for CPD that gives them information and experience relating to a new practice in bitesize chunks, with time in between to test them out within their daily teaching, to then reconvene and discuss the process before learning more.

Professional development must be prioritised by school leadership

During my PhD data collection, staff have noted a preference for having a clear vision for whole school development that they can then build upon with their personal CPD. It is felt that this would provide them with a clearer idea of where they should be developing their professional practices – to make CPD a more coordinated effort across the school. This anecdote is widely supported by the lierature. Hunzicker’s (2010) claims that when the needs of the individual are combined with the needs of the school, teacher commitment and motivation is strengthened. Likewise, in a review of CPD in ICT, conducted by BECTA in 2009, it was found that whilst external agencies may provide models of CPD for school staff, their success depended heavily on the extent to which the school supported the activities. In particular, backing by leadership was found to be one of the key factors to ensuring the success of CPD programmes (Daly et al. 2009) which is in keeping with Billett’s (2001) work, which highlights the importance of the workplace affording staff opportunities to engage in development. For this reason, I strongly support the TPDEG’s recommendation that:

‘All those delivering and accrediting headteacher and school leadership training should make the leadership of teacher development, based on this Standard, a top priority.’

(TPDEG 2016, p.2)

In conclusion, what the standards suggest to me is that there is an opportunity here, for academics and professionals within education to work alongside schools and teachers to support them in filling the gaps and designing and delivering effective CPD across England. Also, in helping to share more widely examples of existing best practice, to make them easier to access. It is also interesting to consider where less formal, teacher-led CPD, such as TeachMeets, fit within these standards (termed Indirect Professional Development in the standards guidance). I believe that TeachMeets are an important format of CPD, as staff have regularly told me that they prefer to try new practices that they know have worked for other teachers – the ‘by staff, for staff’ model is a crucial one and should not be sidelined. What needs to be discussed is how self-directed ‘indirect professional development’ can be situated within a wider, structured plan for CPD.

Avalos, B., (2011) Teacher professional development in Teaching and Teacher Education over ten years. Teaching and Teacher Education, vol.27(1), pp.10–20.

Billett, S. (2001) Learning through work: workplace affordances and individual engagement. Journal of Workplace Learning. Vol.13(5), pp. 209-214.

Clay, B. (2016) Five principles to help you evaluate your CPD. SecEd. Available from: http://www.sec-ed.co.uk/best-practice/five-principles-to-help-you-evaluate-your-cpd/

Cordingley, P. et al., (2015) Developing Great Teaching. Teacher Development Trust: London.

Daly, C., Pachler, N. and Pelletier, C. (2009) Continuing Professional Development in ICT for Teachers. BECTA. WLE Centre, Institute of Education: London.

Department for Education (2016) Standard for teachers’ professional development. London: HMSO.

Desimone, L.M., (2009) Improving Impact Studies of Teachers’ Professional Development: Toward Better Conceptualizations and Measures. Educational Researcher, vol.38(3), pp.181–199.

Guskey, T. (2000) Evaluating Professional  Development. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Hunzicker, J. (2010) Effective Professional Development for Teachers: a checklist. Professional Development in Education, vol.37(2), pp.177-179

Opfer, V.D. and Pedder, D., (2011) Conceptualizing Teacher Professional Learning. Review of Educational Research, vol.81(3), pp.376–407.

Teachers’ Professional  Development Expert Group (2016) Teachers’ Professional Development Expert Group – The Standard for Teachers’ Professional Development. London: HMSO.

The Research Journey: getting the most out of your research

This week I attended a free, one-day conference for doctoral students and early career researchers at De Montfort University. The focus of the day was on getting the most out of your PhD.


The day began with a keynote from Dr Crispin Coombs, Taking the Elevator: Reflecting on the PhD journey, discussing the growing demand on PhD students to graduate with more than just a qualification. He stressed that academia is about products and identified 5 things that a PhD student should look to leave their research student experience with. These are viewed as important for any student embarking upon an academic career:

  • PhD – your thesis and the qualification itself are of course the main intended outcome of doctoral study.
  • Papers – Crispin noted that it is becoming more of an expectation that students will have published work during their PhD, or will have work ready to publish once they have graduated.
  • Networking – it is important to get your name out there, to be a part of the conversation in your research area and make connections with other academics in your field.
  • Funding – Dr Coombs highlighted the importance of understanding the funding process before completing your PhD, so as to prepare you for the beginning of your academic career.
  • Collegiality – as in many occupations, Universities want to know that a future employer works well with others. In an academic context, it can be harder to demonstrate these skills. Crispin suggested volunteering your time to University endeavors (such as student representation in boards and forums) that can be added to your CV.

Crispin’s keynote set the tone for the day, linking well with the following sessions. A range of topics were covered throughout the day, of which I attended:

  • How research is funded: a guide to the process
  • Increasing the visibility of your research through social media
  • Measuring the impact of your research
  • Writing for publication

The overall message of the day, at least from my perspective, was that it’s never too soon to start preparing yourself for life after your PhD – for the remainder of your academic career. So whilst I reflect over Crispin’s 5 areas and how I can develop my academic profile further, here’s a few interesting points/things I was left considering from the day.

*It’s useful to learn funding timescales within your discipline.

*How can you demonstrate collegiality?

www.researchprofessional.com – allows you to set up searches in your discipline for when funding pots are available.

gtr.rcuk.ac.uk – the Gateway to research presents information on all research funded by RCUK, providing a useful resource for understanding what kind of projects they like to fund.

Online Collaboration: Scientists and the social network – an interesting article from Nature about how scholars make use of social media.

Hootsuite – a social media management dashboard that allows you to maintain all of your social media profiles from one platform.

*Make records of everything that can be classed as impact – don’t rely on your memory. When using websites, take screenshots – don’t rely on pages still be being available either.

*When writing for publication – the ideas can be difficult, but the prose should be easy to follow.

*Learn from peer reviewer/editor feedback – grow a thick skin, keep on trying and accept that they will improve your work.

read, read, read and write, write, write!


Building effective CPD in schools

Last Thursday I attended a conference by the Teacher Development Trust (TDT) at the Learn Sheffield Hub. The day was very interesting and provided me with a number of opportunities to compare the views of staff at the conference to those of the schools I have conducted research with to date.

The New CPD Standards
As the standards have yet to be released David Weston, the chair of the government’s CPD expert group, was unable to give us any detail about the standards. He was, however, able to tell us that there will be 5 standards which focus on effective CPD as a relationship between 3 stakeholders: the teacher, the school and leadership, and the provider.

In my discussions with schools around CPD, the relationship between leadership visions for the whole school and individual CPD needs was raised on a number of occasions. Staff noted a preference for having a clear vision for whole school development that they could then build upon with their personal CPD. It was felt that this would provide them with a clearer idea of where they should be developing their professional practices – to make CPD a more coordinated effort across the school.

It had also been stressed that CPD delivered by external providers can often misunderstand the context and needs of the school and their pupils. Improved communication between these companies and the leadership and teachers with whom they are providing CPD, would not only create a more effective service for school staff, but also a better trained teaching body for our students.

The importance of staff buy-in

David discussed the Developing Great Teaching report by the TDT, a review of reviews around continuing professional development and learning to investigate what makes effective CPD. Weston noted that staff buy-in was found to be key to successful professional development opportunities:
‘All the reviews found that an essential element of successful CPDL is overt relevance of content to its participants and their day-to-day experiences and aspirations for pupils.’ (Cordingley et al 2015, p.5)
Relevance of CPD content has been a key concern for my research participants. In every session this has been highlighted as one of the most important factors in deciding if CPD has an impact on current teaching practice. Relevance seems to be a particular concern in relation to CPD for technology use, with many staff noting that often sessions focus solely on learning how to use a new piece of hardware/software that has been purchased by the school, without supporting staff in developing ideas for how it can be used for their own subject teaching. Staff reported a sense of apathy when faced with CPD that was not clearly relevant to their own teaching, and stressed that given their already heavy workloads, they do not have the time to take on new practices without some guidance on how they might be beneficial to their specific needs.
Doing better, not simply doing more
One of the afternoon’s presentations, entitled ‘Effective CPD in practice’, came from Michael Watson, deputy headteacher at a primary school in Sheffield. Michael’s school has been identified by the TDT as an exemplar for whole school CPD strategy and a particular comment Michael made caught my attention.
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Anyone who works in education, or studies the area, will know that time is regularly cited as the biggest barrier to teacher’s professional development. In a climate of increasing bureaucracy and accountability, school staff are losing valuable time to be reflective about their practice. Michael pointed out that instead of simply equipping staff with more and more information, we should instead be supporting them in identifying an area of their practice that isn’t working effectively for them and investigating new practices that could improve this.
Whilst time has come up frequently in the sessions that I have held with schools, and the need for more reflective practices, this notion of swapping out old strategies for new ones is an interesting approach and one that I would like to look into further.
Cordingley, P., Higgins, S., Greany, T., Buckler, N., Coles-Jordan, D., Crisp, B., Saunders, L. and Coe, R. (2015) Developing Great Teaching: Lessons from the international reviews into effective professional development. London: Teacher Development Trust.

My PhD study needs you…

Recruitment Flyer

Do you work in a Leicester school that caters to 11-16 year olds?

I am looking to work with school staff who engage with Secondary age learners, though the school itself may also cater to other age ranges (e.g. 4-19).

Do you work in a role that directly supports learning?

I am looking to work with senior leadership with a teaching role, teachers, classroom assistants, specialist provision and library staff.

Have you, at some point in your career, had an experience of professional learning that related to your use of technology?

Then please consider participating in my PhD research – which aims to investigate how current professional development strategies impact on the development of staff digital literacy.

What is digital literacy?

“Digital Literacy refers to the skills, attitudes and knowledge required by educators to support learning in a digitally-rich world.

To be digitally literate, educators must be able to utilise technology to enhance and transform classroom practices, and to enrich their own professional development and identity. The digitally literate educator will be able to think critically about why, how and when technology supplements learning and teaching.”

(Hall et al 2014)


Reflecting on the journey so far…

pixabay reflections trees water

I won’t lie, the first year of my PhD has proven to be a rather tough one. All of the qualities that I thought made me a good student, I appeared to lose sometime time around March last year – like the ability to get out of bed. You may notice that there is a large gap between my previous post and this one… So it’s been a tough time and I have spent much of the last year berating myself for it not being easier (and yes, I know how unhelpful that attitude is – I’m working on it!). In particular, I have struggled with writing.

But somehow, despite my internal struggles, I have managed to achieve a few things and in the spirit of the new year I’d rather focus on those:

  • I completed my first year of teaching on the Education Practice MA – and my students all successfully passed the module I taught.
  • I returned to the Teacher Education Advancement Network conference and presented on my previous research.
  • I designed and implemented a pilot study for my thesis research.
  • I successfully completed a 10,000 word review of my PhD work to date, along with an internally assessed meeting – which comprised my Formal Review.

It is the formal review that I would like to focus on today, because after struggling for a year, feeling as though I wasn’t cut out for a PhD after all, and living in a state of what felt like eternal writer’s block – completing my Formal Review document and finally seeing all the thinking I have done over the last year down on paper was the most incredible feeling. It was very reassuring to know that it had indeed been in there all along, it just needed a little more time before I was ready to write it all down.

I was also very lucky in my supervisor’s choice of internal assessor. We had a productive conversation about my work, in which she was positive, supportive, challenging and provided me with a new perspective on the way that I write about my research. I took a lot of notes during the meeting but I wanted to share some of the key points, the things that have really stuck with me, here.

So what?

Right at the very end of our discussion, my internal assessor apologised to me for ending on a tricky question. She told me that it is important to always have one question at the forefront of my mind when writing about my research – So what?

Why is my research important? Who is it important to? What impact could it have for them?

In the first week of my PhD study I wrote a blog post about my own personal goals, and they were:

  1. To share why I believe that digital literacy has value in education. Why it is critical in supporting staff to make best use of technologies for all teaching and learning purposes.
  2. To bring teacher voice to the forefront. I do not believe myself to be the expert in this area, school staff are and I do not want to underestimate their knowledge and expertise.
  3. To develop something which is of practical use – rather than theory alone.

We discussed these goals in the meeting and agreed that they go some way to answering the question of ‘so what?’. This is something I intend to keep in mind for the remainder of my studies. My assessor also pointed out that it would be lovely if I could find a v word for the final goal – so that I have 3 V’s to underpin my thesis. If you have any ideas – do let me know!!


I am currently relying on the good will of the schools that I previously worked with, as part of the DigiLit Leicester project, to find participants for my research. This has had mixed success. Schools can be tricky to access for research purposes, particularly when I don’t have a way to make it worth their while in anything other than an intrinsic sense. I am also very aware of the increasing pressures on schools, on top of their existing responsibilities, and so can understand that my PhD research is not a key concern for them. My assessor works in a similarly complex area and was able to offer me some practical and useful tips – for example, offering to write one page reviews of lessons learnt from observations and focus groups that I conduct for school senior leadership.

A priority area for the beginning of this year is to review my recruitment strategies and try some new approaches.

‘It should read like a recipe’

My final take away from the formal review process revolves around the presentation of my methodology. At this early stage in my research, and given my chosen research strategy (grounded theory) it was quite hard to write about the finer details of my research design – at least in the sense that I cannot say how many interviews I will conduct, until I have completed them. The feedback I received on my methodology write up was that whilst it was detailed, it was very abstract and did not related back to my own research, but rather discussed the various techniques I had chosen to employ outside of the context of my PhD.

My assessor point out that a methodology should read like a recipe – being as explicit about the process as possible, and always relating back to the context of my own research. This was particularly helpful feedback that will come in very handy when I am preparing my final submission.


So, I finished last year on a much needed high and have returned to the University after Christmas feeling refreshed, rejuvenated and ready to jump straight back in – which is just as well, as I have my first round of data collection for the main phase of my study starting next week – can’t wait!!

PhD Note 20/2015


Image shared under a creative commons BY 2.0 license by Simon Cunningham

This week I have mostly been:

  • Continuing my literature review work, in particular, this week I have been reading about the neo-liberal and neo-conservative perspectives which have driven some of the changes in teacher education under Thatcher’s Conservative government and New Labour.
  • Attending my first advanced statistics workshop – it was a great way to consolidate the independent learning that I have been doing around Sensitivity and Specificity of data analysis, and the use of Receiver Operating Characteristic curves.
  • Introducing my students to the Mozilla Webmaker suite of tools. This has actually been over the last two weeks – last week we used X-Ray Goggles to ‘hack’ websites and this week I provided the group with a SoundCloud file of me discussing Interactive Whiteboards which they remixed using Popcorn Maker. I wanted the sessions to show the group the potential of online tools for teaching and learning; we ended each session with a discussion of how to the tools could be used within their contexts.

Next week I will be continuing my literature review work and having a meeting regarding open badges schemes.